Cotton Household Textiles - Opportunities for Exporters.

COTTON HOUSEHOLD TEXTILES - OPPORTUNITIES FOR EXPORTERS

Imports are playing an increasingly important role in the large

West European market for cotton household textiles, according to a new

study. Although total consumption of cotton bed linen, towels and table

linen is not growing to any great extent in these markets, the expanding

role of imports to meet the extensive demand that exists is of

particular interest to developing countries, which are among the

principal foreign sources. Over the 1980-88 period the share of demand

covered by imports rose dramatically - from 27% to 42% for bed linen,

from 48% to 62% for towels and from 39% to 56% for table linen. In 1988

developing countries accounted for 42% of total imports of bed linen

into the four leading importing countries (supplying about 27,000 tons),

35% of the towels imported (over 20,000 tons) and 57% of the table linen

(6,500 tons). Although importers do not readily switch to new suppliers,

exporters who can provide goods of consistent, specified quality

according to delivery schedules may be able to find openings.

Market trends

Imports of bed linen, table linen and towels into the four major

markets reviewed (France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and the

United Kingdom) increased annually between 1980 and 1988, moving from

around 84,000 tons of goods at the beginning of the decade to about

133,000 tons in 1988. This upward trend may well continue to the

advantage of developing country exporters. However overall consumption

of household textiles has been more or less stable over the last several

years. Since 1980, for example, the total market for bed linen in Italy

and France has grown slowly, while in the United Kingdom and the Federal

Republic of Germany it has remained relatively static. Demand is not

expected to grow dramatically in any of these product groups, but the

share of imports should expand within the total market.

Bed linen: Imports of bed linen into the four major West European

markets accelerated during the 1980s. Between 1980 and 1988 total

imports of bed linen rose by about 68%, from 38,100 tons to 63,800 tons.

Imports of cotton and cotton-rich bed linen increased even faster,

expanding by 97% during the same period, to 56,100 tons in 1988.

The share of imports accounted for by developing countries has

grown considerably. While in 1980 these countries supplied 30% of the

total, eight years later their share had reached 42%. In volume terms,

imports from these countries attained a record level of 27,000 tons in

1988. This compares with 16,900 tons imported in 1987 and 11,600 tons in

1980.

Of the four countries surveyed, the Federal Republic of Germany is

by far the largest import market for bed linen. In 1988 its total

foreign purchases in this category amounted to 28,100 tons, 15% higher

than in the previous year and 80% above the 1980 level. While over 98%

of these imports were classified as cotton and cotton-rich, it can be

assumed that the goods in question were almost entirely of cotton.

Developing countries accounted for around 44% of the Federal

Republic's imports in 1988, or 12,200 tons. The major suppliers

among this group were Pakistan, Turkey and India, which exported 3,935

tons, 3,311 tons and 2,057 tons respectively to the Federal Republic.

These three countries combined accounted for about three-quarters of the

total imports from developing countries. exports small quantities of bed

linen to the Federal Republic, while Indonesia has become a new source,

supplying 369 tons to this market in 1988.

Imports of bed linen into both the United Kingdom and France have

also expanded over the last several years, although from a lower level.

In the United Kingdom, of total imports of 14,300 tons in 1988,

approximately 6,900 tons were supplied by developing countries, while in

France developing country imports reached 5,100 tons that year out of

total imports of 14,400 tons. As in the Federal Republic of Germany, the

major supplying developing countries to the United Kingdom in 1988 were

Pakistan, with 3,263 tons; India, with 1,421 tons; and Turkey, with

1,022 tons. These three accounted for 83% of total imports of bed linen

from developing countries. However, unlike in the Federal Republic of

Germany where 63% of developing country supplies were of printed woven cotton bed linen, in the U.K. market the major imports were of unprinted

goods.

Imports of bed linen into France are predominantly made of woven

cotton, both printed and unprinted. A large number of countries supply

this market, each with relatively small quantities. While Pakistan,

India and Turkey are leading sources, Thailand was the major exporter of

bed linen to France in 1988 with 1,388 tons. China, Tunisia, Egypt and

Mauritius also supply small quantities to France.

Italy is the largest manufacturer of bed linen in the European

Community and is the smallest importer of this product. In 1988 its

total foreign purchases of these items reached 7,000 tons, 23% higher

than a year earlier. Nevertheless, Italian imports continued to expand

during the 1980s, and by 1988 were nearly 80% above the 1980 level.

Italy's orders from developing countries almost doubled, from 1,400

tons to 2,700 tons between 1980 and 1988, with the major suppliers being

Pakistan, Turkey and China.

Total and per capita consumption of bed linen in the major West

European countries is very large, albeit relatively stable. In 1988

consumption reached 150,800 tons. While this was almost 13% higher than

in 1987, consumption was only 5% above the 1980 figure. Since cotton is

by far the most important fibre for bed linen, shifts are likely to

occur around a stable level of consumption as cotton prices fluctuate.

Given the per capita income in the Federal Republic of Germany, it is

not surprising that consumption of bed linen is the highest there of the

four countries surveyed. The reason for the slowly changing level of

consumption in that market during the 1980s was both a low population

growth rate and a shift towards goods of a higher quality. Furthermore,

bed sizes tend to be up to 20% larger than in both France and the United

Kingdom, which would also account for a higher volume of consumption.

The ratio of imports of bed linen to total consumption increased

significantly for the four markets during the 1980s, from almost 27% in

1980 to 42% in 1988. The Federal Republic of Germany has the highest

import dependency ratio for bed linen, which in 1988 reached over 60%,

almost doubling the 1980 figure. The ratios have also increased in

France, the United Kingdom and Italy. By 1988 these stood at 41%, 46%

and 18% respectively. While these proportions are in themselves high,

large quantities of fabrics - of which the bulk is cotton - are also

imported into Western Europe to be converted into finished products. In

the case of the United Kingdom, for example, imports of cotton fabrics

account for almost 90% of total materials used in manufacturing bed

linen, while the comparable figures for France, the Federal Republic of

Germany and Italy are above 50%. An estimated 70% of the bed linen

consumed in the major markets of Western Europe is made from imported

fabrics.

Towels: In direct contrast with the unchanging level of domestic

production, the importation of made-up towels into the four markets has

shown strong growth, particularly since 1985. After changing little

during the first half of the 1980s - at about 38,000 tons - imports of

towels have risen in each successive year. Total foreign purchases

amounted to 57,800 tons in 1988, 13% above the 1987 level, which was

itself almost 19% higher than in 1986. Cotton and cotton-rich towel

imports - again almost exclusively of pure cotton - reached 56,000 tons

in 1988, 97% of the total consumed.

Imports from developing countries have shown a similar upward

movement since 1985 in terms of volume, and their share of the market

has also risen. By 1988 supplies of made-up towels from developing

countries had reached 20,100 tons, 3,800 tons higher than in 1987 and

more than double the 1985 figure. The market share of developing

countries was 35% in 1988 compared with 26% in 1985.

As with many other textile products, the United Kingdom is the

largest import market for towels. In 1988 these imports totalled 20,300

tons, 25% higher than in 1987 and three-fifths above the level at the

beginning of the decade. Almost all imports are of pure cotton, with the

bulk being of terry towelling. Supplies to the United Kingdom from

developing countries amounted to 6,300 tons in 1988, 19% higher than a

year earlier; two-thirds of these were made from terry fabrics. A large

number of developing countries supply the U.K. market. The most

significant in 1988 were Pakistan, China, Turkey and India, which

exported 1,284 tons, 1,252 tons, 1,187 tons and 901 tons respectively.

Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia and Sri Lanka and, to a lesser extent,

Mauritius and Thailand were also emerging suppliers.

While the Federal Republic of Germany ranked only second as an

importer of towels into Western Europe, it was the largest consuming

country during the period as far as developing countries are concerned.

Total imports during 1988 amounted to 17,400 tons, 6% higher than the

previous year, with terry towels accounting for three-quarters of the

total. Imports from developing countries reached 7,600 tons the same

year, registering a gain of 21% over 1987. Brazil is the leading

supplier; in 1988 its exports of made-up towels to the Federal Republic

amounted to 2,400 tons, 31% of the total. These were entirely of terry

cloth. Other major suppliers were Pakistan, Turkey and China, each

providing over 1,000 tons, while smaller amounts came from Colombia,

India, Indonesia, Mauritius and Taiwan Province (China).

Although imports of made-up towels into both France and Italy have

also expanded, by 44% and 100% respectively between 1985 and 1988, to

total 13,700 tons and 6,400 tons, neither are large markets for

developing countries. Supplies from these countries amounted to 3,300

tons for France and 2,900 tons for Italy in 1988. Imports into France

come mainly from Pakistan, China, Brazil, Cameroon, India and Sri Lanka,

while Brazil, Pakistan, India and Cuba are significant exporters of

towels to Italy.

Total and per capita consumption of made-up towels in the four

countries has shown very rapid growth since the middle of the 1980s. By

1988 consumption in the four markets combined had reached 93,300 tons,

almost 7% above the 1987 level and 15% higher than that of 1980. Cotton

made-up towels accounted for 98% of total consumption. The relatively

high proportion of heavier bath towels in the U.K. market has resulted

in that country being the largest consumer of this item in weight among

the four markets. In 1988 U.K. consumption amounted to 31,600 tons,

one-third of the total of the four. The Federal Republic of Germany was

the second largest consumer, followed by France and Italy.

Between 1980 and 1988 the proportion of imports to total

consumption in the four countries rose from 48% to 62%. For France, the

Federal Republic of Germany and the United Kingdom, the ratio was above

60%, while that for Italy was 40%. The rise in this ratio was most

apparent in the case of the Federal Republic. Between 1980 and 1988 the

proportion went from 48% to 68%, which can in part be explained by a

rise in the volume of imports. Again, since imports of terry fabrics are

used in the domestic production of made-up towels, the actual import

share in terms of fabric content is higher, possibly by an additional

ten percentage points.

Table linen: As in the cases of both bed linen and towels, in

direct contrast to the declining level of domestic manufacture, imports

of made-up table linen showed a continously rising trend during the

1980s. Between 1980 and 1988 the total volume of table linen imported

into the four markets rose by 52%, from 7,500 tons to 11,400 tons.

Imports of cotton and cotton-rich table linen is a much smaller volume

market than either towels or bed linen, but the share of developing

country imports has shown impressive growth. In 1980 developing

countries supplied almost 39% of total imports, while eight years later

their share had reached 57%. In volume terms, imports from developing

countries attained a record level of 6,500 tons in 1988. This compares

with 3,800 tons in 1987 and 2,900 tons in 1980.

Table : Imports of cotton household textiles into major West

European markets(1) 1980-88

(1) France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and United Kingdom.

Within the European Community, the Federal Republic of Germany is

the largest market. Approximately 4,700 tons of table linen were

imported into that country in 1988, 38% higher than in the previous

year. Nearly 60% of that was considered as being cotton and cotton-rich.

Developing countries account for 83% of all such imports into the

Federal Republic. Knitted or crocheted table linen came to 47% - 1,840

tons - of total imports from developing countries in 1988, with Turkey

being by far the most important supplier. The other 2,100 tons imported

consisted of woven table linen. China, Brazil and India were the three

major sources, providing 865 tons, 459 tons and 216 tons respectively in

1988. Smaller suppliers included the Philippines, the Republic of Korea

and Malaysia.

While France is the second largest importer of made-up table linen,

at 3,000 tons in 1988, developing countries do not have an important

market share. Since 1980 less than 1,000 tons per annum have been

supplied from these sources. The two largest developing country

suppliers are China and India.

In the case of Italy, imports of table linen continued to grow

during the 1980s, albeit from a low base. In 1988 around 2,400 tons were

purchased from foreign sources, of which over 90% were of cotton and

blends rich in cotton. Developing countries accounted for half of the

volume traded, all of which was of cotton. The major suppliers among

these were China, India, Pakistan, Turkey and Brazil, while smaller

sources included Mauritius and Laos.

The U.K. import market for table linen is extremely small, with

annual amounts only just above 1,000 tons throughout the 1980s.

Total and per capita consumption of table linen remained stable

throughout the 1980s, slightly under 20,000 tons yearly for the four

West European countries combined. Consumption has been highest in Italy

and the Federal Republic of Germany, at 7,800 tons and 7,400 tons

respectively in 1988. Together these two account for three-quarters of

total demand in the four major markets. The share of cotton and

cotton-rich table linen is higher in Italy, at 94%, than in the Federal

Republic of Germany with 64%. One reason is that more tablecloths are

made from flax in the Federal Republic than in Italy. The United Kingdom

has the lowest level of consumption of table linen. In 1988 the figure

was only 1,500 tons.

Like bed linen and towels, the import dependency ratio for table

linen has shown an upward trend during the period, from 39% in 1980 to

56% eight years later. The share for cotton and cotton-rich table linen

has shown a similar movement, rising from 35% to 51% during the same

period. Although France and the United Kingdom have the highest such

ratios, which in 1988 exceeded 80% in both cases, in volume terms these

countries have the smallest markets. In contrast, the largest market,

Italy, has the smallest proportion of imports to total consumption. In

1988 its share was ten percentage points higher than eight years

earlier. While it is expected that the ratio will continue to grow in

these markets, in terms of volume the market for made-up table linen is

one-fifth that for made-up towels and only 13% of that for bed linen.

Variations in demand

Considerable differences exist in consumer requirements for cotton

household textiles among the countries surveyed concerning quality,

fabric weight, sizes, fashion, colour, fibre, finish and price. For

suppliers approaching the West European market for the first time or

simply seeking to extend a successful operation from one European

customer to another in a different country, the variation in demand

between one geographically small area and another is frequently

frustrating. Particularly significant are differences in assortments

offered, packaging, quality and sizes. For instance, in the United

Kingdom, at least two sizes of single beds and two of double beds are in

common use (several other sizes are also available). In the Federal

Republic of Germany beds are longer, again with several different size

variations available. French beds measure yet other dimensions, with two

versions generally available for both double and single beds. Still

another situation exists in Italy, where mattress lengths are up to 8 cm

to 10 cm shorter than in other major West European markets.

Product ranges that sell successfully in one market may require

considerable modification to sell well in another. Such differences are

most marked for bed linen.

In the U.K. market bed linen is increasingly sold in ranges of

coordinated curtains, pillowcases, duvet covers and valence sheets or

divan trims. Approximately 60% of the homes in that country own duvets

requiring covers. "Divan" type beds are the most common, using

valences (divan trims) or valence-type bottom sheets. The remainder use

blankets over flat bleached or plain dyed sheets. This markets shows a

strong trend for 50% cotton/50% polyester blends for sheets, pillowcases

and duvet covers.

In the Federal Republic of Germany the requirements for bed linen

are different. Coordination of all textile features of bed linen is much

less important than in the United Kingdom. Typical items in this line

are fitted bottom sheets, top sheets and cotton quilts. Such products

are almost entirely of cotton (above 95% of the volume sold).

In France both the fitted bottom sheet and the duvet and cover have

increasingly replaced classic flat sheets and blankets. It is estimated

that at the retail level about half of the pieces sold are fitted top or

bottom sheets, 30% are flat sheets and 15% to 20% are duvet covers.

Coordination of various items of bed linen is not important in this

market. Most bed linen sold in France is of cotton. Apparent rises in

cotton's share of sheets, from 82% in 1980 to 89% in 1988, are

probably the result of the movement from blends of 67% polyester/33%

cotton to 50%/50% in recent years. The latter ratio has established

itself in all blended bed linen sold in Western Europe.

Italy is the market in which fine percale cotton flat sheets excel.

Bottom sheets, often fitted, are frequently sold in sets with top

sheets. Alongside this, however, most households have a parallel

collection of plain dyed or bleached sheets, again with the bottom

sheets fitted. The use of quilts is not extensive in Italy for climatic

reasons. As in the Federal Republic of Germany, bed linen is

predominantly made of cotton.

Import channels

The percentage of business in household textiles done by different

retailer, or retailer-type distributor categories, varies among the four

countries.

For example, in Italy 50% of the business in bed linen goes through

independents and 30% through street market traders (independent

retailers with or without permanent premises). In the United Kingdom

independents handle less than 12% of that business and street market

traders probably less. Mail-order is the most extensive in France among

the markets surveyed, with 34% of bed linen sales (24% in the United

Kingdom, 22% in the Federal Republic of Germany and only 5% to 6% in

Italy). Such differences in the retail situation necessitate different

import channels.

The primary marketing channels for exporters to the four major West

European markets are manufacturers in those markets, wholesalers,

mail-order houses, major department stores, variety chains and multiple

stores. In the four markets surveyed, the local manufacturer in the

importing country is one of the most important outlets for foreign

suppliers of cotton household textiles. Such companies either sell the

imported merchandise under their own (or a subsidiary) brand name, or

pass it on to mail-order houses, variety chain stores or other outlets

with their brand name on it.

The wholesaler/importer is also a significant marketing channel.

Wholesaling is highly developed, particularly in the Federal Republic of

Germany. In addition to importing finished goods, wholesaler/importers

also sometimes "manufacture" their own brand by using

commission finishers to finish and cut items of bed linen from imported

grey cloth. Their function in supplying the retail trade is very

diversified. For large mail-order companies, the wholesaler's role

is usually to provide goods that are short in supply. In the case of

small retail groups, the wholesaler may fill the regular requirements or

act as an agent.

Large retail groups, multiples and variety chains tend to import

direct. However the small size of their orders and the diversity in

colour and size of their requirements are likely to make business with

them rather difficult for new suppliers to the market. Their quality

specifications are generally much higher than those of mail-order

companies or wholesalers (the latter need goods at all quality levels).

Major mail-order buyers attempt to purchase as much of their

requirements as possible direct from the local manufacturers or

exporters in the supplying countries. Their ability to do this varies,

hence their need for secondary sources, mainly wholesalers, in order to

keep adequate supplies of the goods offered in their catalogues. Most

mail-order companies attempt to provide very short delivery times. In

the Federal Republic of Germany they will go to great lengths and

expense to ensure this, and are therefore more hesitant to do

long-distance business than are mail-order firms in some of the other

markets surveyed.

Voluntary buying groups are essentially supplied by wholesalers and

local manufacturers, with which they negotiate bulk purchase discounts

for their smaller retail clients. They rarely import direct.

Entry into the West European market for table linen remains to a

great extent the province of specialist importers, which should be

considered as the main target for new market entrants in most of these

lines. Such importers sell to almost all entities, including retail

groups, mail-order houses and even wholesalers who are importers of bed

linen and towels.

Possibilities for new suppliers

Buyers of household textiles are generally unwilling to change from

an existing foreign supplier to a new source without considerable

incentive. Many large distributors contacted during the survey have not

changed their main import sources for five or even ten years, and few

expressed an interest in examining new sources in countries they had not

dealt with before.

On the other hand, as wage levels rise in what have hitherto been

low-cost producers among traditional suppliers, new sources are likely

to be looked at more carefully. Some buyers have begun to visit

developing countries to survey such prospects. Buyers have expressed

particular interest in countries ready to re-equip with up-to-date

machinery, in which existing industrial and training skills are in place

to make such investment worthwhile. Firms already producing for their

own domestic or another export market are given special consideration in

this context.

D.E. Morris, P. Ruttyn and R.J. Stogdon work with the International

Institute for Cotton in Brussels. This article is based on a study that

they recently prepared for ITC, Cotton Household Textiles: A Survey of

Selected Western European Markets, covering France, Federal Republic of

Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.

PHOTO : Developing countries are major suppliers. Left, quality

control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

PHOTO : Imports of bed linen have risen rapidly. At right,

finishing of cotton sheeting.

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You are right others do just fine and even win some!.------Do women care how a man dresses or is that only shallow immature girls who do?Clothes do matter to me, because they tell you a lot about someone.I just know that I'm going to probably get along better with a guy who has really casual style and dresses for comfort and function rather than fashion.------What is the Disneyland dress code you must have to work there?I really like little skirts and the real way i fix it being brief is leggings and coloured tights. Not the methods with holes however the ones that virtually look like leggings but are obviously tights as a result of material------15 year old girl always comes to class with injuries?Yes, because if there is an abusive parent, someone needs to intervene. Same case if this student's injuries were self-inflicted, which would indicate depression.Unless she secretly fights criminals in her free time and picked up injuries from there.------what can i wear over or under this dress to be warm at a New York evening Wedding? Shoes - Or if you don't like them look at the rest of the shoes on the site.------What kind of hairstyle will look nice with this dress?Angel,it incredibly is a quite gown,yet as a guy,i think of somewhat like the type interior the image,it exhibits the gown and your self greater powerful,in case you spot my factor,so have an astounding time to------Why am I the only one to dress for the cold appropriately at school?I asked myself this same question when I moved to CT. In the winter it gets cold. However, I see many people in shorts and a zipped or pullover sweater. No lie, I even seen this one girl in flip flops.------Anyone with a sense of fashion... please help?I have a good look Somethign like that.------Wearing A Cherry Red Dress To A Wedding?I like females in jeans. It makes them look more city like and it generally does not look like they are trying too hard but if you're trying to get this guys attention, this may well not be what you would like------What would you call my style???? :)?It's really cute and laid back. I think it's more of a girly style with a slight edge.Also, if you want to add details, you can. It's under the edit link on your question or something.------I need a new wardrobe for fall I'm 23. I want advice on what basic essentials I should get to mix and makeGet classic clothes that don't go out of style, and accessorize. The accessories can change with time and you can wear the same clothes as a base. You keep up with fashion trends this way, and save money too.------Where can I find a sweater dress for a reasonable price?urban planet, urban outfitters, costa blanca....those are the only ones i can think of, and i dont know if you have one near you or not.also, a good suggestion, thrift stores! cheap, and you never know what youll find:)------Fall wardrobe for school aged children?my daughter wears uniforms, so i replace them as needed. i never went heavy into shopping as they had plenty of clothes from the summer to last a few months into the school year. i replaced clothes as need then, too------I'm 15 and going to a Georgia wedding in November. What should I wear?!?This is a pretty dress, it's short so not too dressy, but still elegant. Forever 21 has lots of cute dresses...and cheap! ------Why do people think that western riders are pur redneck hillbillies that don't care about their horse?Same reason people think english riders are stuck up snobs that wear their jods so tight so the sticks don't fall out of their butts. Ignorance and bigotry.There are amazing riders of both disciplines. And total jerks in both.------Survey: What is your style? (GIRLS)?1. jeggins and pumps and top and cardigan2. demin skirt and tank top (if its actually hot)3. jeans/jeggins or skirt with tights, uggs and hoodie4. jeggins and hoodie, pumps or uggs5. hollister, river island, primark..random ones6. pink7. down and straightened------What do you think? I'll answer yours if you answer mine. A little bit long, but please help. I'm confused!?It does sound like he likes you, but he may be shy about it or unsure of what to do. You may need to make the first move if you really want something to happen between the two of you------for grae 8 grad i have a dress its like not straps or tube tops its full length and full sleeves but all the?Psh no,it sounds like there trying to be too grown up and to slut-like.As long as your dress is pretty and is not covering your body from the top pf your head to the floor, u should be fine.------Have no idea what to wear on first day?!? would work well :) I suggest lose fitting but not baggy shirt with shorts or boyfriend jeans :P------what is this fall's fashion?cuffed high boots, skinny jeans, and stripped long sleeve sweaters. Thick belts around the waist with a long white shirt and black leggings, kimono styke dresses and peep toe shoes... Try looking at this months issues of Lucky fashion magazine and glamour.
Design Scheme of Multi-channel Voltage Measurement Based on Stm32
Design Scheme of Multi-channel Voltage Measurement Based on Stm32
This design proposes a design scheme of multi-channel voltage measurement based on STM32 chip, and the measurement range is between 0-10V. The built-in A / D of STM32 samples the multi-channel voltage values to obtain the corresponding digital quantity. Then the corresponding analog voltage value is obtained according to the proportional relationship between digital quantity and analog quantity, which is displayed by TFTLCD display equipment, and the multi-channel collected data is stored in SD card.1. IntroductionIn recent years, data acquisition and its application have attracted more and more attention, and data acquisition system has developed rapidly. It can be widely used in various fields.Data acquisition technology is one of the important branches of information science. Data acquisition is also a process of obtaining object information from one or more signals. Data acquisition is an important link in industrial control systems. It is usually realized by some single chip microcomputer systems with relatively independent functions. As an indispensable part of the measurement and control system, the performance characteristics of data acquisition directly affect the whole system.Voltage measurement is the most universal. It is of great significance to study and design methods and instruments to improve voltage measurement accuracy. In the design of voltage measurement, single chip microcomputer as controller is the core of the whole design. In addition, there must be an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the design. ADC is used to directly collect analog voltage and convert analog signal into digital signal. It directly affects the accuracy and speed of data acquisition.2. System overviewThe microcontroller of this design adopts STM32 single chip microcomputer.STM32 Series MCU is designed based on the Cortex-M3 core of arm company. Its clock frequency reaches 72mhz. It is a high-performance product among similar products. It has the advantages of high performance, low cost and low power consumption. It is a good choice in embedded application design. The A / D converter in the design adopts STM32 built-in ADC. STM32 ADC is a 12 bit successive approximation analog-to-digital converter.It has up to 18 channels and can measure 16 external and 2 internal signal sources. The A / D conversion of each channel can be performed in single, continuous, scanning or intermittent mode. The conversion results can be stored in the 16 bit data register in left or right alignment. The maximum input clock can reach 14mhzThis design can measure the voltage value of 8 channels, the measurement range is 0-10V, and the display error is ± 0.001V. LCD displays the voltage value and waveform in real time, and microSD card synchronously stores the data. The system principle block diagram is shown in Figure 1.Design scheme of multi-channel voltage measurement based on stm323.3 LCD control circuitThe LCD used in this design is 2.4 inches, 320 & times; 240 resolution. The LCD module is controlled by the FSMC interface of STM32.FSMC (flexible static memory controller) can be changed into static storage controller. It is a unique storage control mechanism of STM32 series high storage density microcontroller with internal integration of flash of more than 256Kb and suffixes Xc, XD and Xe. By setting the special function register, FSMC can send corresponding data / address / control signal types according to different external memory types to match the speed of the signal, so that STM32 series microcontrollers can not only apply various external static memories of different types and speeds, Moreover, it can expand a variety of different types of static memory without adding external devices, so as to meet the comprehensive requirements of system design for storage capacity, product volume and cost.In STM32, one end of FSMC is connected to core Cortex-M3 through internal high-speed bus AHB, and the other end is an external bus for extended memory. After the access signal of the kernel to the external memory is sent to the AHB bus, it is converted into a signal conforming to the communication protocol of the external memory through the FSMC and sent to the corresponding pin of the external memory to realize the data interaction between the kernel and the external memory. FSMC acts as a bridge, which can not only convert the signal type, but also adjust the signal width and timing, so as to shield the differences of different storage types and make them no difference to the kernel.FSMC can connect devices such as nor / PSRAM / NAND / PC card, and has FSMC_ A [25:0] has 26 address buses and FSMC [15:0] has 16 data buses. In addition, the extended storage space of FSMC is divided into 8 blocks. Select the block of the operation through the address line. In this way, the LCD will operate as a memory with one address space.3.4 SD card drive circuitThe SD card used in this design is microSD, also known as TF card. MicroSD card is a very small flash memory card, which is mainly used in mobile phones. However, due to its small volume and the continuous improvement of storage capacity, it has been used in GPS devices, portable music players, digital cameras and some flash memory disks. The pin diagram of microSD card is shown in Figure 9.MicroSD card, like SD card, has SPI and SDIO operation buses. Compared with SDIO bus, SPI bus has simple interface, but its speed is slow. We use SDIO mode.MicroSD card has 4 data lines in SDIO mode.In fact, microSD has 1-wire mode and 4-wire mode in SDIO mode, that is, 1 or 4 data lines are used respectively. Of course, the speed of 4-wire mode is faster than that of 1-wire mode, but the operation is more complex. The 4-wire mode of SDIO is used in this design. The hardware connection diagram of microSD card is shown in Figure 3.STM32 MCU Chinese official websiteSTMicroelectronics / St / STM
How Does Temperature Affect the Speed of Sound?
How Does Temperature Affect the Speed of Sound?
As other answers show, the speed of sound is slightly influenced by temperature.Much more interesting is the influence of gradients in temperature! The usual distribution of temperature at different heights is: high at ground level, decreasing upwards. This profile, with slightly higher sound velocity at ground level causes wave fronts to curve upwards. Sometimes the temperature profile is inverse, from ground level to a certain height, in the order of hundreds of meters. This inversion layer acts as a reflector, causing sound to propagate over much larger distances.It is not the speed as such, but the differences in speed that have important influence on sound propagation.1. How to increase my running speed?No, leaping prime does now not make you a quicker runner. Speed is muscular so you will do whole frame paintings along side plyometrics, which can be exceptional varieties of bounding and leaping to construct explosive force. To get greater at going for walks you ought to run. If you are employed on lifting and doing the plyometrics you are going to have the groundwork to upgrade your going for walks. What form of going for walks are you running for? If it's soccer then you definitely will have to coach for brief bursts of velocity. If it's one other game you have got to appear on the distances required on your game. A huge aspect of velocity it response. That manner the begin. Whether it's out of the blocks in a race, or attending to a fly ball within the outfield. Speed is vigor so that you ought to be ready to loosen up rise up tall, maintain your elbows at ninety levels, swing them directly entrance to again, and now not throughout your frame. Land at the balls of your ft.2. Water flows through a 1.5 cm diameter pipe into a 275 liter bathtub, which it fills in 5 minutes. What is the speed of the water in the pipe?Mass of 275 litres of Water divided by 5 minutes x 60 seconds = Time of 300 secondsMass Flow Rate of 0.9166 litres per secondThis is excessive amount of water in Speed or Velocity to fill a bathtub in 300 seconds. See IPHE & CIBSE CoP & Technical Guidance on maximum flow rate for 15 mm smooth wall copper pipework. The water pressure is another factor is consider.Water flows through a 1.5 cm diameter pipe into a 275 liter bathtub, which it fills in 5 minutes. What is the speed of the water in the pipe?.3. Not getting the download speed I should be getting?you download a file to what ? a phone or a computer? ethernet or wirelessly ? you need to be more clear on how to ask a question, even with my godlike powers i cant read your mind4. Need help gaining speed/trimming fat?challenging task. browse in google. that will may help!5. Why are people so insistent that speed of light is constant for all observers and is the maximum traveling speed?In special relativity, when the speed of light is constant for everyone, time can be different. When different travellers or observers have light remain constant, their time can change to allow for this. So try to wrap your head around the fact that different observers can have differences in time, and this allows the speed of light to remain constant for all observers.6. fur nice fan motor Polly have to be smaller to make the fan go faster?Motor pulley larger or driven pulley smaller will increase speed7. What are the technical factors in a processor that determine its speed?Clock Speed of the Processor and its primary cache size determines its speed in terms of throughput8. Is faster than the speed of light possible?well ist just a theory so it could be or couldnt be true.....einstien said if we could go the speed of light then we cold time travel...other people say it is still expanding....what i want to know is how can all of that crap fit into somthing the size of a pin head lol.9. How to train for faster picking speed on guitar?Assuming we are talking about alternate picking, there are basically two exercise methods for building speed.The first and the better known one is to start slow. Set your metronome to a comfortable tempo and play the exercise a few times. Then go up 2 bpms or so and repeat. Continue alternating between plus two and minus one. Back down some 10 bpm when you hit your limit and work your way up from there again. You can go up 10 bpm or so from time to time just to see how it feels. The second one is to practice in bursts. Start with two notes and play as fast as you can. Then add the third and continue from there. This method is not as well known as the first one but is every bit as useful. You can also start from the most difficult spot on the exercise and add notes on both sides.Practicing scales only is probably not the best way to go. There are specially crafted exercise sets to build speed that isolate common patterns. Troy Stetina's book Speed Mechanics contains one such set.In terms of technique, on your left hand, only apply enough pressure to avoid buzz. You will get tired very quickly if you exert more force than necessary. The lighter your left hand touch is, the easier it is to play fast. It's easier said than done but that's the whole idea of practicing.On your right hand, I would not worry that much about wrist vs. elbow unless you are aiming for Guiness speed record. Wrist movement is probably a bit better but there's nothing wrong with a combination of wrist and elbow. Guitarists argue about it all the time but there are superb guitarists in both camps which proves that both techniques are equally viable. Just avoid finger movement, it does not work for fast playing
What Is WiFi? Just Tell Me What It Is, and What It's Used For.?
What Is WiFi? Just Tell Me What It Is, and What It's Used For.?
Wi-Fi= wireless fidelity and what everyone else said1. i want to acess internet on my psp and my pc.i heard about this wifi link.i don't what a wifi is.plz help?you are not going to get free internet. if you want internet you have to pay for it. all Wi-Fi is, is you plugging a router into your internet connection, then the router transmits a signal.2. What WiFi router should I buy for my 800 SF apartment?Any wifi router provided by the internet provider will do and serve the purpose...An apartment area of 800 sq. ft is small enough which can easily be served by the company provided hardwares!You would not want to have a very strong signal that anyone outside your apartment can tap into!3. What is wifi and how do I know if my house has it?Wi-Fi is a wireless internet connection that things like laptops, wireless cards, and game systems use connect to the internet. If you do not have a wireless router, you do not have Wi-Fi4. What Wifi usb Adpter Is Better?Neither, they are both low quality. Buy from a reputable brand5. what is wifi actually? how does it works?it's a wireless connection. you can connect any computing device as long as you have a wireless nic enabled on that certain device. to access the internet you need to be in a "hotspot" that's the place where you can get your signal to connect to the internet6. How can I find out what Wifi networks my iPhone knows about?I think the only way is to actually be in range of the network that you want to get rid of. You can not actually see what networks you have stored, not that I know of, but if you want to get rid of a network.Settings > Wifi > Then select the blue arrow on the right of the network that you are connected to and click "Forget this Network".7. How do I find out what wifi chipset my phone has?I simply used the dmesg command in a terminal emulator and scrolled until I found anything named bcm432x... and wlan. Think thats it. I have lg p5008. I'm not entirely sure what WiFi is?Have a look at the wikipedia article. Usually you would get a DSL connection and set up your wireless network at home. The wireless network connection is also called W-LAN or WiFi, but in this context, WiFi has nothing to do with the ISP. Not sure if in your region any provider sells internet acces via WiFi, this is not a common thing to do.9. What is wifi and what does it do for a phone?If you have internet at home and have a wireless router you can connect wirelessly to it and get on the internet etc. on your phone. Hope this helps!10. 802.11 standards compliant methods of forming a LAN. Unlike Ethernet, data does not travel along a cable, but rather, wirelessly, at a frequency of 2.4GHz (802.11b/g) or 5.0GHz (802.11n and the antiquated 802.11a)11. What is "WiFi" and can you explain ,more about it? I'm GOnna buy a laptop.?well if you want wifi in your home you have to have an internet connection threw a modem..ex comcast, qwest, at&t. you will need to purchase a wireless router, its just another device that hooks into your modem. so no it is not free, but it is a one time charge because your ISP will not charge you to have the wireless router hooked up...and where you can use it is in your home. you can also connect to wifi at places like starbucks, and that is free as well.12. What WiFi router brands or models are considered to be secure? [closed]For cheap solution I use a wifi router well supported by dd-wrt alternative firmware. Here you can find supported models database.For more advanced, trouble-safe solution I use Ubiquiti UniFi - the AC-Lite model is really good.13. What is a bluetooth? what is WIFI? And what is a BLU RAY DVD?Bluetooth is a wireless technology for connecting electronic devices to each other. For instance there are Bluetooth Headphones, Bluetooth Cell Phone Ear Pieces, etc... If you want to be able to use the Bluetooth Ear Pieces with your cellphone, your cellphone must be Bluetooth compatible. WiFi is a method of connecting to the internet wirelessly. For instance many big cities may have "WiFi Hotspots". If you are in these WiFi Hotspots and you have your laptop or any other device that can connect to the internet wirelessly, you can surf the web wirelessly as long as you are in that particular area. And Blu-Ray is Sony's High Definition format disc. The difference between Blu-Ray and Regular DVD is that Blu-Ray can produce 1080p HD quality picture and Blu-Ray can hold more data. A Single Layer Blu-Ray disc can hold 25GB and a Dual Layer DVD can hold 50GB. A standard DVD can only hold around 8.5GB total. Basically if you have a HDTV, Blu-Ray would be the best choice for getting the best picture quality with clear, crisp viewing quality.
Which Is Better, WiFi Or ZigBee Wireless Technology
Which Is Better, WiFi Or ZigBee Wireless Technology
Wireless replacing wired has become an irreversible trend, which can also be said to be a new industry. At present, there are two technical camps of ZigBee and WiFi in the field of smart home, and WiFi and ZigBee have their own advantages in wireless technology. Among the most popular wireless technologies in the industry, WiFi technology and ZigBee technology are the most worthy of competition. So which is more advantageous, WiFi or ZigBee? Who will become the mainstream in the future? This is worth discussing.WiFi: WiFi technology is the fastest transmission technology at present. The product cost is low and it is more popular in current life. However, the devices that can be connected with WiFi are limited. The actual scale of adding WiFi network to devices generally will not exceed 16. In the development of, the number of switches, lighting and home appliances will certainly be far more than 16, so WiFi has its advantages, but it has great limitations, Limited development.ZigBee is a two-way wireless communication technology with low complexity, high security and short-range transmission. It has the characteristics of strong scalability and can be embedded in various household devices. ZigBee also has advantages in security.1. The future smart home network will be a smart network, which can sensitively perceive the changes of data and traffic of each node; Be able to intelligently allocate, repair and deal with network resources; It has the attribute of "self-learning and self-organization".. However, in the practical application of families, switches, lighting, curtains, anti-theft devices, etc. will not move after installation.2. ZigBee supports up to 65000 nodes, but can WiFi connect more than 100 devices? The answer is No. So large capacity is good.For example, LVMI smart home, that is, Xiaomi's smart home brand, basically supports ZigBee protocol.When it comes to LVMI, I recommend their smart gateway. The smart home market is very messy. Sometimes we are excited to buy it and find that it does not support it. Therefore, when we buy it, we should see what the device supports or does not support. Of course, the best thing is to buy a gateway with high compatibility. LVMI's gateway product not only supports ZigBee protocol, but also is compatible with homekit. This product supports 32 aqara devices of green rice, which can be connected with Apple's "home" app. After that, it can control the associated devices on IOS devices and Siri directly. I think most young people now use fruit machines to compare prices. In this way, it is still very friendly to most IOS users. For fruit powder users, the biggest advantage of this product is price. At present, the smart home products supporting homekit on Apple's official website are very expensive. Even a simple smart socket costs 295 yuan. Through the aqara gateway of LVMI, the cost of access equipment can be reduced.Well, comprehensive comparison, WiFi is relatively more convenient, but ZigBee will be more stable and support more devices. If you only want to use one or two smart devices, WiFi can be used. If you want to create a complete set of smart home ecological chain, it is obvious that ZigBee is more in line with your requirements. Xiaobian is more optimistic about ZigBee. After all, home is developing towards the trend of comprehensive intelligence, Technology with multiple devices can ensure this. No matter what kind of technology, we hope to constantly update and improve, and making our products convenient is the king.
Smart Home Promotes Building Intercom into Thousands of Households, with Large Stock and Incremental
Smart Home Promotes Building Intercom into Thousands of Households, with Large Stock and Incremental
In the large densely populated cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen and the rising second and third tier cities, the housing demand is increasing year by year. The huge floating population not only promotes the rapid development of low-end real estate resources in the first tier cities, but also extends the complex industrial chain around the buildings. In particular, the development slogan of "smart city" put forward by the state in recent two years gives hope to the market that lives on security products around buildings in addition to real estate developers.Smart home promotes building intercom into thousands of householdsAt present, more and more building intercom manufacturers begin to go deep into the field of smart home and combine building intercom system with smart home system. This is reflected in the construction of "digital building" and "smart home industry ecosystem":Combined with the smart home system, in addition to the traditional intercom unlocking function, the building intercom also integrates many convenient functions such as SMS notification, mobile app remote control, security alarm, indoor monitoring and viewing, elevator call, home control, information home and so on.Building intercom and smart home complement each other, further improving the value-added space and cost performance of both, thus bringing huge space for function expansion.In the future, it is expected to take advantage of the upsurge of smart home to develop rapidly in the wave of home intelligence, and will carry more home control functions.Smart community derived demand brings new business opportunities for building intercomIn addition to the smart home, the building intercom system, as the entrance of the smart community, realizes the extension of multiple functions such as identity confirmation, access control, security monitoring, human-computer interaction and so on by combining AI technology.The consumer demand derived from the smart community can be said to bring new business opportunities to the building intercom industry. In the process of continuous promotion of the smart community, many building intercom enterprises see the future business opportunities and begin to make corresponding layout and planning on products and solutions. Using information means, Internet and Internet of things technology, develop community oriented Internet of things system and information platform, and provide real-time, fast, efficient and low-cost Internet of things, interconnection and intelligence for the community on this basis. For example, it launched smart community management, smart life services, smart travel and other related solutions, and continued to pay attention to the field of community and personal security.High, middle and low-end take all stock and incremental market space is largeAs an upstream industry of real estate, building intercom has significantly increased the demand for medium and low-end building intercom products under the condition that the state vigorously promotes the construction of affordable housing and indemnificatory housing.With the implementation of smart city construction, the demand for high-end building intercom products is also increasing day by day. The application of high-definition visualization and face recognition in the field of building intercom is accelerating.At the same time, after more than 20 years of development, many communities equipped with building intercom in the early stage are facing problems such as disrepair and backward configuration. Therefore, the equipment renewal demand of old communities has also become a new round of market growth point of building intercom system.Overall, China's housing market will continue to develop. According to the relevant development strategies of the State Council, China will build 10 billion square meters of housing by 2020. For building intercom enterprises, there is a large development space for building intercom related products in both stock market and incremental market.Conclusion: in a word, opening up the integration and docking with comprehensive life service platforms and community operation platforms such as third-party payment, smart city, video surveillance, community o2o e-commerce, smart home and community elderly care, that is to provide overall solutions for communities and families, which has become the future development trend of deepening reform, transformation and upgrading of building intercom enterprises. Moreover, with the gradual improvement of community infrastructure, building intercom enterprises also need to change from the role of product provider to the role of supporting service provider.
Upgrading of Set Top Box
Upgrading of Set Top Box
Cable STB From 1990 to 2005, the first generation set-top box, also known as analog TV set-top box, dominated the family living room for 15 years. However, due to the unidirectional content and low definition, it also replaced as the second generation set-top box - Digital TV set-top box as CRT TV withdrew from the historical stage. Although the definition of digital TV set-top box has changed greatly, the unidirectional content of both the first and second generation set-top boxes still fails to meet the needs of users. However, the second-generation TV set-top box still has a very large market. It carries the main way of radio and television live broadcasting. It has been in service until today. With the popularization of Internet and triple play, the second-generation TV set-top box has added interactivity.IPTV set top boxIPTV (Internet Protocol Television), namely network protocol television, is a technology that uses broadband network and integrates Internet, multimedia, communication and other technologies to provide home users with a variety of interactive video services, including digital TV. Its three major functions of live broadcasting, watching back and time shift turn the originally linear TV programs into a nonlinear program stream. Users can choose programs instead of watching programs, which is a great subversion to the viewing habits of traditional cable TV users. In 2004, China's IPTV was jointly launched by Heilongjiang Unicom (formerly Netcom) and Shanghai Wenguang blockbuster in Harbin, and then expanded to other provinces and cities in China. After the exploration stage from 2004 to 2008, the launch stage from 2009 to 2012 and the promotion stage from 2013 to 2017, IPTV has developed very rapidly in China.Ott boxNetwork STB began to rise in 2005, also known as Ott box. Ott not only provides free video viewing without monthly rent, but also can realize on-demand service. At this time, the network STB can only realize the function of online on-demand. Until 2007, Jingchen solved the problem of decoding, the network STB added the local playback function, and then Android in 2011 Â The entry of TV platform has made a qualitative leap in the network set-top box industry. The Ott industry has changed from "pseudo two-way" to full two-way. The Android TV platform has fundamentally solved the problem of openness. The network set-top box has entered the era of intelligent network set-top box, and the box industry has entered a period of rapid prosperity and development. From 2011 to 2015, the intelligent network set-top box based on 32-bit software and hardware processing system gradually developed into dual core, quad core and 8-core, and the hardware performance tended to be improved. The Android version was from 1.6 to 4.2, and the software became more and more mature, supporting 4K display resolution. Since 2015, the intelligent network set-top box based on 64 bit software and hardware processing system has become popular, The mainstream box is equipped with 1GB or 2GB of running memory, bringing scalable intelligent applications with strong hardware and software.
Buying Manchester United Tickets Online with a One United Membership?
Buying Manchester United Tickets Online with a One United Membership?
Hi, tickets are not yet available for the game against West Brom, It will show an M instead of a H, you could try and ring 0161 868 8000, I am not sure the code if you are ringing from Thailand. To answer the other question you asked, it is possible to get 4 tickets together but it will cost you a bit more because Manchester United have to take a cut of the tickets price which is about 10 per ticket, if you are not bothered about money then there are currently 4 tickets to the West Brom game on the front row at 40 a ticket which will eventually turn in to about 60-70 a ticket including booking fees and postage and the money that Man Utd take, you will have to wait for the tickets to be all sold out before they sell the the tickets on Viagogo. Hope that helps. Paul— — — — — —How do you ensure a narc stays in love with you? Even if you know of all his transgressionsu2026 And still want him back.. what steps can you take to reunite yourself back with the narc you so desperately love?I wanted mine back to the point I gave up on him and us lol. What never has been a unit can not be reunited, it's that simple. If he is a npd he was acting and you should not want to live and love an actor at all right?.— — — — — —what do you think about the Creative Zen Stone MP3 player?you can get smaller and cheaper one gig units anywhere, personal preference is a unit with sd card as you can change the tracks available with your mood, and the expandability is great,— — — — — —What is a Packaged Unit - All About HVAC Package UnitsThese units function in the same way that central air systems do, except that the single unit is connected to both the supply and return air ducts (in central air systems, the ducts are attached to various components in your home). The input air is processed through the compressor and coils to cool it, and is then pushed through the duct system.— — — — — —Is it possible to break a rental lease without having to pay the remaining?Get a copy of the lease, for your records. It probably does not matter for this part, because it is universally illegal to rent a unit that it unfit for human habitation. You need to obtain a professional document that states what needs to be repaired. You can send that to the landlord with a cover letter asking to be released from the lease and for return of 100 percent of your rent since September and your damage deposit. Most states protect you from being "evicted" in retaliation for reporting health and safety problems. However, as mentioned by others, the health or building inspector could INSTANTLY condemn the unit and force you to go live someplace else. The landlord would be, in theory, responsible for paying the reasonable cost of your alternative accommodations, because it's his fault. Now you can look at the lease, or state law, and find the part where the landlord has obligations to maintain a safe and healthy unit for you, or something similar. Notify the landlord, in writing, that you feel the condition of the unit does not fulfill the requirements of the lease and that you consider the lease terminated as of the end of the next month, or any earlier date to which he may agree, without further obligation by either of you beyond that date, but reserving your "other rights" to date (i.e, your right to sue for all the rent you have ever paid, without actually saying that).— — — — — —what do you do when your ac unit freezes?If its the indoor coil and its on the furnace just turn on the heat for a little bit and put fan on manual.If its the outdoor unit just turn it off let it thaw.You can speed the process with a hair dryer or heat gun. Bottom line is you have a problem. Good be dirt in the coil or low charge or too small a unit or dirty air filter.Should be checked out
The Benefits of Using the Right Fence Post Lights
The Benefits of Using the Right Fence Post Lights
Solar Powered Fence Post LightsIt is difficult to tell how much solar powered fence post lights cost in the United States. We are fortunate to have many good things to do with our money and energy saving power. Solar powered fence post lights can save you money on electricity bills, have an emergency generator that works for you and helps you keep your house warm when it is time to run your home or business. They are very easy to install and cost effective. Solar powered fence post lights can also be found on a variety of retail outlets in the United States. They are easy to install and use and provide great light control.It is not always easy to decide what kind of fence to buy and when to use it. You have to know what kind of fence to choose from and what kind of solar powered fence to use. There are several different types of solar powered fence post lights, but you have to consider the type of fence you are using. The best solar powered fence post lights are available in various shapes and styles. They are useful for people who want to keep their yard in good condition and will not be burdened by high maintenance costs.With over 300 solar powered fence post lights in stock and well-built, efficient fences that are easy to maintain, maintenance free and energy efficient, there is no need to build them yourself. With a little help from our electricians, we can make sure that the light bulbs and solar powered fence post lights are as energy efficient as possible. All you need to do is set the bulb on the fence post lights and turn them on.With more than two billion dollars invested in solar powered fences around the world, it's no wonder that solar powered fence lights are becoming a top choice for many people. There are so many types of solar powered fence lights and each one of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. You can get solar powered fence lights at your local yard or buy solar powered fence lights to have in your garden. Solar powered fence lights are perfect for creating an amazing view over your property.Solar Powered Post Lights for GardenWe have had some really good solar powered post lights that we are planning on putting into our garden. We have had some really good solar powered post lights that we are planning on putting into our garden. Solar powered post lights can be used to create beautiful and bright outdoor living spaces. They can be used to create an indoor space or a home office. Solar powered post lights can also be used to add security to your garden and provide privacy for your family. Solar powered post lights can also be used to add security to your garden.The most important thing to consider when buying solar powered post lights is how they work. When you have solar powered post lights then it is good to check if they are functioning properly. You can get solar powered post lights at low cost by investing in solar powered post lights. If you have solar powered post lights then it is good to check if they are working properly. It is also good to check if they are not doing their job properly. They have been producing the best solar powered post lights in the market for years.It is difficult to find solar powered post lights in supermarkets, although some stores have installed solar powered post lights. Most of the other major supermarket chains are installing solar powered post lights and charging them using a USB port. There are many different types of solar powered post lights and a lot of them can be used to provide power to any part of the garden. This article will show you how to use solar powered post lights in your garden.If you have ever had to deal with an electric bulb in your garden, you know how frustrating it is to see the switch that will turn on your light and turn it on at the same time. If you have a huge garden then solar powered post lights are a great way to add value to your garden. Solar powered post lights can also be used to add privacy to your garden and give you privacy in your garden. You can choose to use solar powered post lights as well as other household lighting such as LED solar post lights.Solar Powered Post Lights for Outdoor PatioThe benefits of solar powered post lights are as follows: ÂA little bit of electricity is used to power our computers, printers, and other devices. When we use solar powered post lights for outdoor patio we need to be able to charge our phones and other devices that are connected to the power of the solar powered post lights. The best solar powered post lights for outdoor patio use solar powered post lights. It can also be used to have a more controlled lighting system that uses an infrared sensor to make sure that the lights are all working properly.It is very important to note that solar powered post lights are energy efficient and they have an integrated circuit that monitors the current flowing through them. They are also much safer than incandescent lights. Solar powered post lights can be found at many places around the world and you can find them at some of the major markets in the world. These solar powered post lights can be used by outdoor patio, garden, balcony, deck, patio, porch, balcony, etc. You can use them to place light posts on your patio, deck, porch, balcony, porch, porch, balcony, etc.Solar powered post lights are the way to go in many homes and businesses in the United States. There are several types of solar powered post lights that you can choose from. They are called solar post lights because they use an array of energy-efficient bulbs that produce up to 150W of light per square meter. Solar powered post lights can also be used to add lighting to your patio, balcony, garden, porch, balcony, or any other object that you want to have on your patio or balcony.Solar powered post lights are used by many people all over the world to light up their home or patio in the dark. They are an effective way to add some color to your garden and yard. Solar powered post lights are available in various shapes and sizes and can be installed in any style of garden or patio. They are great for indoor use and also provide privacy from outside weather. They are easy to install and you can set them up on your patio or deck.Solar Powered Fence Post Cap LightsThe sun is shining and you can see it from the distance, but there are some things that we can do to protect our eyes. One of the things that we can do is get solar powered fence post caps to match the weather. There are some great options out there that will be a good option for home and business owners who want to make sure that their property is protected from any type of wind or solar powered fence post caps. Solar powered fence post caps are easy to use and they will last for years. It is also an excellent option for those who have been able to purchase solar powered fence post caps.It is important to note that solar powered fence post caps are still being developed and are now sold in shops. Solar powered fence post caps are becoming more popular as they provide an inexpensive way to put together your fence. There are many different solar powered fence post caps and what you need to consider is the type of solar powered fence post caps you need. These posts can be purchased from any source and will have the best lighting for your garden. They can be bought from any source and will also be connected to a power source so you can use it to turn on lights on your property.There are many types of solar powered fence posts that can be attached to your fence post. The best way to get solar powered fence posts into your yard is to make sure that they are easy to install and use. They also have some features that will help you save on electricity bills. Solar powered fence posts can also help with snow removal, brush burns, etc. Solar powered fence posts can also help with irrigation, landscaping, etc. Solar powered fence posts can also help with frosts and other cold weather storms.
Gentlemen, Meet My New Friend  Mr Porter
Gentlemen, Meet My New Friend Mr Porter
The latest discovery I've made is Mr Porter.MRPORTER.COM is the award-winning global retail destination for men's style, combining the best international menswear with editorial content.You can browser their site for some of the more 'high-end' fashion brands but they also offer probably one of the most captivating YouTube channels I've discovered in some time. It not only captures my attention completely but also offers some inspiring videos and insights into everyday life. This can range from learning about how the great Magus Nilsson (one of the worlds top chefs) cooks outside in his local forrest, to how to pack your suitcase correctly.Highly recommended for your viewing pleasure. You can view the YouTube channel here. Also, here's some of my favourites:.• RELATED QUESTIONShould I trust a girl again if she friend-zones me because she wasn't clear about her feelings, and now she wants to be a friend?Yes, I am a girl, and I often wish a guy is more patient and not just so self-centered focusing only on what he wants from me, but rather be patient and wait till I am ready to feel more than a friend, or at least start being a friend first. Friend-zoned does not mean no chance, and I have seen so many guys saying friend-zoned means a guy should give up and move on, and that is really not the case, unless she finds you completely unattractive. You can not even be friends with her, getting to know her and developing trust? What is wrong with being friends first and more later? It is much safer for both people involved getting to know the person as a friend, so if she/he turns out to be a crazy, immoral, disrespectful or wrongful person, you can stop it right there, without sleeping together. Why guys these days are so self-centred and only thinking about himself and not about the other person? If you are so selfish to the point that you can not even be a friend with her, do not be a friend, let her move on to some nice guy out there, at least he would respect her enough to be a person, and not an object of sexual desire. You do not just trust someone, you develop a feeling of trust after getting to know someone and you earn someone's trust, not an instant thing.Should I trust a girl again if she friend-zones me because she was not clear about her feelings, and now she wants to be a friend?.My sister lied to her friend. What should I tell her?we all know that one day, any relationship will end so....i just think that ur sister should end this dating thing because when i was in 5th grade something like that happenned and they kissed too and guess what... the guys just forgot all about the girls and they cheated on them and forgot how much they used to love eachother ur sis's friend is a true friend and she should not let her go out of reach because she's the one that will stay and her bf is gonna be the one that will leave so should dump her bf and go to her friend apologize and tell her that she dumped him and continue their friendship (:Food gifts for a friend in Peace Corps?When our daughter was a PCV in Peru, she sent us a list. I would suggest you ask your friend what she would like in a "Care" package. She knows better than we do what she yearns for and what is available in her village. When I was a PCV, years and years ago, I asked for that stuff you add to simple syrup that makes it taste like maple syrup, sort of. I made pancakes every couple of weeks. What almost any volunteer would like would be short, chatty letters, on paper, sent with commemorative stamps, with a picture or two of her home town, friends and family. If you and she grew up in the same town, for instance, a picture of the park as the seasons change, for instance. Pictures of you and some of her other friends; pictures of her pets, as well, if you can. You could also send her pictures of ordinary things in the USA, for her to show to her hosts. The inside of a supermarket, for instance. Chances are they do not wrap their meat in plastic at her post. I took pictures of the meat, produce and kitchen gadget section of our supermarket for our daughter. (Ask the manager for permission first, and tell him/her why you want to take the pictures.) I had a picture I took on the SF Bay bridge while my friend was driving; it showed one tower and 5 lanes of traffic. It always amazed my fellow teachers and students, because our school was 110 miles from the nearest paved road. The gravel road to our school was two lane, and not particularly busy.I'm infatuated with my daughter's best friend. Do you think she's beautiful? Does she like me?It's immoral and unethical to do anything with your daughter's best friend. I think you are already way pushing it by posting a picture and buying her a bear. It's wrong, and you know it is wrong too, otherwise you would not be posting this. And yes, the FRIEND OF YOUR DAUGHTER is very pretty. And I hope you are a troll. Edit: Infatuation is NOT love. LUST is NOT love. I am sure you are a kind person, I am sure she's sweet and pretty, but at the end of the day, she is 16 and your daughter's friend. I hate to bring it to you, but she is not going to stay with you, even if anything ever happened with you two. Do you think this could be a healthy relationship, supported by family and friends? Do not you think she will mature, not want to spend her time with the (in her eyes) old father of her (then former) friend? You are dreaming, and that's alright, but leave it with that.Falling for best friend's wife?A man should keep it in his pants. If you value this friendship and value your karma (what goes around, comes around, my friend) you will do what you know to be right. Do not betray your friend and do not get involved with his wife. I would put some distance between you and your friend's wife too, that way you wo not be constantly faced with the temptation. There are many fish in the sea, you do not have to go after one that's already taken, let alone one that's taken by your friendI envy my FORMER best friend?"He's very popular on FB, Instagram and stuff, while I barely get any likes." Which means he probably spends his life on social media and the internet and really does not do much else. Whereas other people also do things like reading, art, things that contribute to society etc.. "He has TONS of friends, and he goes out all the time - while I only have a couple of friends, and most of the time I am just staying home. " Jeez, between living on the internet and partying, when does this guy have time for school work? Also, although he has tons of friends, how many of them do you think he is really, really close to? How many of his friends would give their lives to save his if the time came? Whereas I am sure you and your friends are closer than peas in a pod c: "He has had 8 girlfriends so far, while I only had 2, and it was almost 2 years ago since my last relationship. He also gets a lot of compliments about his look, while people barely notice what I am wearing." Eight girlfriends? You sure this guy is not a player? Do not worry, in 50 years time, you will be the one with a wife who you love more than anything and he will be the one hooking up with random women he has never met. There is no need to be jealous over this guy!Does my friend's boyfriend soon to be fiance like me? or is he just being nice?What the hell? this guy seems as if he is into you, that is not normal behavior, if my boyfriend went kissing one of my girlfriend on the head when me him are a serious i would be pissed off like hell. Plus your friend's man should not care whether another guy touches u, that is not he's concern. My brother do not put he's hands on my thigh when he is talking to me. Please do not be into this guy only because of he's money because if someone else comes along who is richer than you will just go for the richer guy. Also keep your distance a bit, even though he seems to be the one initating everything, i am sure u do not wanna risk losing your friend and be called the boyfriend stealer, this guy trying to make a move on you and is covering by saying your like a sister to him, yeh right lol. Does your friend know that he bought you an expensive purse and kissed you on your head and touch your thighs while your talking? Does he act this way to your when your friend is around? now think about this, if your friend knew would she be ok with that? would she says "oh he is treating u in a sister way." I really do not think so, so this guy seem like think your attractive, if i were u i would keep a big distance, do not be alone with him when your friend is not there.how much time is my friend lookin at?First of all, it depends on what state your friend's probation was in. For example, I live in Texas, and when charged with probation violation in this state, you are held WITHOUT bond or the ability to bail out until you either get re-instated by probation to continue with them or a court appearance with your judge where you have to face either additional charges or reinstatement... Penalty for probation violation in my state is high... I was on probation myself in the state of Texas and violated... ( I had been sentenced to 5 years probation ). I was then arrested and had to see my judge to see if he would either a.) reinstate me and allow me to either continue on my current sentence or b.) charge me with new cases, in which case, I would probably get my probation revoked and serve the remainder of my original 5 years incarcerated in prison. One thing very odd though is that you say he has been OFF probation for 3 or 4 years, correct? I am very confused by this because the only way that you can get arrested for probation violation is if you are CURRENTLY on probation.. If your friend got pulled over for speeding and was not charged with anything else, and SUCCESSFULLY completed his probation a few years ago, then there is a SERIOUS mistake being made and your friend needs to contact an lawyer immediately... However, if he just stopped going or did not completely serve ALL of his probated sentence, then he has violated... in which case he faces the original charge he got arrested for when he got probation.. I hope this helps.. good luck. mols *updated... Hey, Just saw that you had added that his DWI was in Texas.... Basically, If he has been arrested for a probation violation in Texas for the reason of a pending DWI charge he received while ON probation, then he unfortunately will be looking at some time. Texas is really cracking down on DWI over the past year or 2, and they are notorious for violating probated offenders... To narrow it down anymore I would need to know: a) if he was on felony or misdemeanor probation and for how long b) was this probation deferred or did he take the straight probation with conviction and 3) does he have a real world lawyer or a court appointed.. If you can tell me any of that information, I can pretty much tell you what he's gonna get.
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